|Tutorial: In Session: Integration between Final Cut Pro and Pro Tools Free
In Session: Integration
between Final Cut Pro and Pro Tools Free.
About this article:
Freelance video and audio editor Adam Green focuses this How2
on getting audio out of Final Cut Pro 2.0.2 into Pro Tools Free,
With the introduction of version 2.0 of Final
Cut Pro, Apple has given us the ability to delve more into audio
editing with the OMF export feature. OMF stand for Open Media
Framework, and is a way for audio and video files and playlists
to be transferred from one editing system to another. There are
numerous video and audio companies that support OMF (Apple, Avid,
Digidesign, SSL, Sonic Solutions, Discreet, etc.) and allow their
products to become more integrated with each other without the
need to reprogram their interfaces.
The most useful part of OMF for Final
Cut Pro and Avid users is the ability to export audio from the
timeline directly into Pro Tools. All of your audio edits and
fades can easily transfer over to an audio editing system for
sweetening. When finished, the audio editor can layback the finished
mix directly to the master tape, or export a file for import
back into the video editing system. The most useful part of the
whole process is that the audio editor will receive not only
the final edit, but also handles on the edits as well. Access
to these handles makes it easy to blend edits together and smooth
out the mix- a task that is much easier on an audio system than
a video editing system.
In this article I'm going to focus on
Final Cut Pro version 2.02 and Pro Tools Free (www.digidesign.com)
version 5.01. Where applicable, I'll mention the limitations
of Pro Tools free, and where Pro Tools LE and TDM beat its free
We'll start this lesson at the very beginning-
acquisition of material. If you're using a DV camera you must
check your audio settings. Too many cameras are coming from the
factory with the audio settings set to 12 bit/32 KHz. DV cameras
have two settings- 12 bit and 16 bit. The 12 bit setting records
at 32 kHz and the 16 bit setting records at 48 kHz. There is
no reason to ever use the 12 bit setting unless you are planning
on doing overdubs directly into the camera. Since you're reading
this article, I'll assume that you will be using Final Cut Pro,
so a 16 bit setting is mandatory in my opinion.
When capturing into Final Cut Pro, make
sure your capture setting is set to 48 kHz as well as your sequence
setting. It is possible for Final Cut Pro to play back 48 kHz
audio in a 44.1 kHz sequence, but you are putting undue strain
on the realtime sample rate conversion capabilities of Final
Cut Pro, and could possibly drop frames as you are playing. Always
try to match your audio file settings with your sequence settings.
As you're editing, try to place like
types of sounds on the same tracks. For example, I always place
dialog on tracks 1 and 2, music on tracks 3-6, and sound effects
and miscellaneous effects on tracks 7 and 8. Final Cut Pro supports
up to 99 audio tracks, so if you need to add a couple more audio
tracks, it is possible. However, keep in mind that Pro Tools
free only supports up to 8 audio tracks, so if you make 9 audio
tracks, then the ninth will be excluded from the OMF transfer.
I suggest keeping your sequences under the 8 track limit. There
are ways around the 8 track limit if you are using Pro Tools
LE or TDM, but for now lets stick with the basic stuff.
Feel free to add as many edits as you'd
like on your audio tracks. Audio transitions will also pose no
problem to your OMF transfer if you've updated to Final Cut Pro
version 2.02 (there were some sync issues with transitions that
have been resolved). If you want to do some volume automation,
or rubber banding, these will not transfer. All files will open
in Pro Tools at their default, zero level, so your Final Cut
Pro mix will simply be a temp mix.
There are a couple of items on our checklist
before we export the audio. First, it is important that you verify
the starting timecode and code type of the sequence before we
continue. Click on the sequence and choose sequence settings
(command-0) from the sequence menu. Click the timeline options
and note the starting timecode. This code reflects the first
frame of the sequence. I will usually choose 00:58:00:00 which
gives me enough time to place bars and tone as well as a slate
and countdown before a 1 hour start (30 sec black, 1 minute of
bars and tone, 10 sec of black, 10 seconds of slate, 10 sec of
black, 1 hour program start) If you are working in a television
environment or need exact program length, then leave the drop
frame box checked. It is unnecessary is you are doing film work
or other non-television specific projects. PAL users will not
need to worry about this option.
The sequence settings window allows you to change the starting
timecode of the sequence and its drop frame/non-drop frame status.
If you add bars and tone, you will need
to choose a reference level for the audio tone. It is important
to understand that the tone you place in your sequence will be
of little use to the Pro Tools editor. Since OMF is a direct
file transfer, there is no need to align anything inside of Pro
Tools. It simply will open your OMF session and the files will
reside on the timeline. The only use for placing the tone in
the sequence is if you are laying back, or making an edit to
tape of your sequence. The tone is necessary to align the recording
deck to your mixing reference level. Sony has essentially set
the standard for the amount of headroom necessary in digital
recording. They say that there should be around 20 decibels of
headroom before distortion in a digital world. Therefore, -20
db on a digital meter should equal 0 VU on any analog device.
The only problem with that school of thought is that this is
all based upon your material starting in a 20 or 24 bit environment.
You see, every 6 db drop in gain is equivalent to losing 1 bit
of information. In a 20 bit world (most of Sony's digital decks),
losing 2 or 3 bits of headroom is OK since you still end up with
around 17 or 18 bits of useable information. In our 16 bit world
(all of your DV decks), if the average volume of your material
is at -20 db, you are essentially only using around 13 bits of
information- thus increasing the presence of your noise floor.
So, you see that it is important to set your reference level
as high as possible (smallest headroom possible) so you use the
most amount of significant bits in your mix. I recommend setting
your tones to -14 db and using this level as your 0 when mixing
and laying back to analog devices.
When exporting a stereo bounce, or temp mix, choose Export Final
Cut Pro Movie and check audio only.
One other housekeeping task you might
want to consider is doing a temp mix for the Pro Tools engineer.
This would essentially be an audio mix performed in Final Cut
Pro with approximate levels of how you want the mix to sound.
Simply adjust the volume levels of the clips in the sequence
to their preferred levels. Mark an in mark at the beginning of
the sequence and an out mark at the end of the sequence and choose
export Final Cut Pro Movie in the file menu. Choose audio only
in the pop up menu and hit save. Import the newly created file
back into Final Cut and place it on the final two tracks of your
sequence. Make sure you don't exceed a total of 8 tracks. If
adding the new temp mix exceeds the limits, you can perform the
export without your bounced file and simply include it on the
transfer disk as a separate stereo file. This file can later
be imported into Pro Tools using the Import Audio from other
movie menu item found in the movie menu. A safe way to make sure
all audio and video is in perfect sync is to add a 2-pop to your
tracks. This would entail generating a white frame which start
exactly 2 seconds prior to picture as well as a frame of 1 kHz
audio tone corresponding to the white frame. There are some countdown,
or leader assets which you might be able to find around the web,
which would already have the work done for you. If audio and
video ever get separated, simply align the white video frame
to the audible pop on the audio tracks.
Now we're ready for export. Click on
the sequence you would like to export and choose OMF Audio Export.
In and Out points will be ignored, so the entire sequence will
be exported. If you are using Pro Tools Free, you MUST choose
44.1 kHz. Pro Tools free only supports 44.1 kHz sample rates..
If you are using Pro Tools LE or Pro Tools TDM, then 44.1 and
48 kHz are both viable options. Don't ever choose 32 kHz since
it cannot be read by any of the current translation tools. You
can also choose the Handle Length of the audio files that you
are exporting. Remember that audio files occupy much less space
than video files, so exporting with the largest possible handles
is always recommended. This allows you more flexibility in Pro
Tools if you are faced with the problem of trying to remove a
pop or breath. I usually choose 3-5 second handles. You can also
choose to include audio crossfades in the export. The default
is checked, meaning that fades you make in FCP will transfer
to Pro Tools. Crossfades can easily be removed in the Pro Tools
session if necessary, so leaving it checked is safe.
the sample rate of your OMF export. Pro Tools Free only supports
44.1 kHz while Pro Tools LE and TDM support both 44.1 and 48
kHz. 32 kHz is not supported by either- so don't choose it.
Final Cut Pro analyzes your audio clips and creates a single
You will see Final Cut Pro analyzing
all elements on each one of your tracks from the start to the
end of your sequence. It is essentially taking your audio clips
and converting them over to AIFC media and packaging all your
audio elements into one OMF file. Currently, OMF files cannot
exceed 2 gigabytes in size, so if you think you are going to
go over that amount, simply cut your sequence up into two pieces
and perform two OMF exports. A one hour sequence with 4 filled
audio tracks would take up approximately 1.2 gigabytes.
The resulting OMF file will now contain
all the audio elements from the sequence in one file. If you
go to the finder and get info on the newly created file, it should
be at least a couple of megabytes in size. Assume around 5 megabytes
per mono minute, and see if your file is close. If it is under
a megabyte, you might have problems. Your new OMF file should
also have the .omf suffix after its name. It's a good idea to
keep that suffix in case you don't remember what kind of file
it is. Currently, there is no OMF specific icon, so your file
will be iconless. It is also important to keep the suffix if
you are transferring the OMF file to a PC so the file type will
exporting your video, you can make a reference movie by unchecking
the "Make Movie Self-Contained" preference.
Since Final Cut Pro only supports OMF
audio export, and the resulting file will not have your video
elements embedded in the file, it is necessary to export the
accompanying video elements. Click on the sequence and load it
into the timeline. The OMF audio export you just exported is
based upon the start of the sequence. If we want the video to
be synchronous with the audio, we need to make sure there is
no mark in on the timeline. The safest thing to do is to clear
both the in and out marks by hitting option-x. It is also necessary
to render all un-rendered material by hitting option-R. Now go
to the file menu and choose export Final Cut Pro movie. Our goal
is to export the movie without changing its size, compression,
or frame rate attributes. We also have a choice of making a reference
movie or self-contained "bounced" movie. If you intend
to do your Pro Tools audio sweetening on the same system that
your Final Cut system is located on, then create a reference
movie. If you are simply copying all the elements to another
drive that will leave the studio, then self a self-contained
movie is a better choice. Keep in mind that a self-contained
movie will take up about 1 gigabyte for every 5 minutes (DV compression),
where a reference movie is much smaller and only "points"
to already captured clips. Also choose video only since the audio
has already been exported via OMF.
Once completed, we are essentially finished
with Final Cut Pro. We have created an audio OMF file as well
as a Quicktime DV reference movie and are ready to convert the
OMF file into a Pro Tools session. The OMF cannot natively be
read by Pro Tools and must be converted into a Pro Tools session
first. We can use one of two Digidesign products to accomplish
this- OMF Tool or Digitranslator. OMF Tool is free from Digidesign
and does most of what you will probably need. Digitranslator
is a commercially available program and adds the flexibility
to convert your Pro Tools session back into an OMF file for transfer
back into an Avid or other editing application. It has the ability
to perform a couple of additional tasks which the free OMF Tool
cannot. Digitranslator gives you information regarding the OMF
file in the upper left of the window. It states the starting
timecode (our sequence starting timecode), frame rate, sample
rate, and bit depth. It allows you to translate all or only selected
tracks into the newly created Pro Tools Session. It also has
the ability to consolidate media directly from within the application.
This means that if 30 second handles were exported from Final
Cut Pro, and you only wanted 2 second handles, Digitranslator
would delete 28 seconds of audio handles as it created your Pro
Tools session. Sample rate conversions are also possible from
within the application, so if the OMF file was exported at 44.1
kHz and you really wanted a 48 kHz session, you'd be able to
convert the files as it created a new Pro Tools session.
Digitranslator has many more options than its free counterpart.
Lets work with the free version, so our
next step is to run OMF Tool 2.08 and open your newly created
OMF file. Choose to save it as Pro Tools 4. Pro Tools Free 5.01
will open up older (Pro Tools 4.0) sessions with no problem.
Run Pro Tools and open the newly created
session. There are a couple of session maintenance procedures
that we need to do before we import our video track. First we
need to unsafe all the record buttons on the tracks for future
recording. Hold command-option and click on any record button
to unsafe the tracks.
command+option and click on the record buttons to "unsafe"
all of the audio tracks in Pro Tools. You might also want to
turn off some of the rulers under the display menu and show only
You also should go to the display menu
and choose ruler shows- minutes:seconds. There is no timecode
ruler in Pro Tools Free- only minutes:seconds, bars:beats, and
samples. Pro Tools TDM versions have the capability to show the
timecode ruler, so use it if you've got it.
Also open the session setup window and
make sure the frame rate is the same as your original Final Cut
Pro sequence. Notice that the sample rate is unswitchable in
Pro Tools Free and only supports 44.1 kHz. LE and TDM support
both 44.1 and 48 kHz sample rates. Your session start should
also match the start time of your exported sequence.
The session start should transfer over from the OMF file. If
you'd like to change it, don't forget to hit the return key after
typing in the new timecode to take effect. Pro Tools Free only
supports 44.1 kHz, so the Sample Rate display is grayed out.
Now its time to import your movie: choose
import movie from the movie menu and open the reference movie.
It will now appear in the Pro Tools timeline as a video track.
The video clip will automatically be placed at the beginning
of the session, and will be already be in sync with the audio.
To place the video track at the top of the timeline, click on
its track name and drag it above the first audio track.
At this point, you will be able to see
an NTSC 720X480 or PAL 720X576 pixel sized window on your screen.
It is not possible to resize the window in Pro Tools and make
it smaller, but you can accomplish this in Qucktime Player before
you import the movie. Open the movie in Quicktime Player and
choose movie properties from the movie menu (command-j) Choose
the video track and scroll to the size properties.Click the adjust
button and hold the option key (to constrain the window) and
drag the lower right of the movie window to the upper left until
it is half the size (An interesting aside is that if you choose
a size of exactly 320X240 pixels, then Pro Tools will be able
to do a process known as pixel doubling on your movie. The catch
is that you must have two monitors with the second monitor set
to a resolution of 640X480. After importing, you can click on
the movie which will cause it to bounce over to the second monitor
and fill up the entire screen). Now go and import your movie
into Pro Tools.
It is possible to adjust the movie window size in Quicktime before
importing it into Pro Tools. Go to movie properties, hold the
option key, and adjust the size of your movie.
Without a supporting video card such
as Pinnacle's Cinewave, Targa 1000 or 2000, D1 Desktop, or Aurora
Ignitor Card, you will not be able to see the video on a television
monitor. Synthetic Aperture (www.synthetic-ap.com)
does have a possible solution however. EchoFire is an application
that routes any DV compressed quicktime movie out the firewire
output. If you connect a camera, deck, or transcoder to the firewire
output, you will be able to view it on an NTSC or PAL monitor.
The caveat is that since it is a software decode, and Pro Tools
is already taking a large percentage of the CPU processing power
to play audio, video will be out of sync with audio. In my tests,
its usually four frames late- you will hear audio before you
see accompanying picture. The solution is to nudge the video
track a couple of frames earlier so that it appears in sync when
viewed. This creates other problems- when you are moving sound
effects to picture manually, you will be placing it 4 frames
too early. For now, there is no real fix for the small sync offset,
so if you don't have video hardware, you might be moving your
movie back and forth.
After you have cleaned up all of your
audio elements, performed volume automation, and added any reverb
or effects, its time export your final mix. Make sure that all
the tracks you want to hear are unmuted. Basically, what you
hear is what you get. Select the amount of time you'd like to
bounce. I suggest you click on the longest track and hit return
to go to the beginning of the session. Then hit option-shift-return
to highlight to the end of the session. It doesn't matter that
only one track is selected, all the tracks will be included in
Make sure you highlight from the beginning of the session all
the way to the end (option-shift-return) before choosing to bounce.
The highlighted selection does not have to be seen on all tracks-
Go to the file menu and choose bounce.
Choose stereo file and convert after bounce if you are using
Pro Tools Free. TDM and LE users are able to work in 48 kHz,
so a sample rate conversion is not necessary in those cases.
Final Cut Pro can import a variety of
formats. The first option we have is the bounce type. All three
formats are supported, but I recommend stereo since the resulting
file will be 1 stereo interleaved file as opposed to two files
representing the left and right side of your mix. If you are
using Pro Tools Free, your session is currently 44.1 kHz. Choose
to convert your mix after the bounce to 48 kHz for import back
into Final Cut. Also choose the file format in the bounce options
settings. Sound Designer II and AIFF formats will both work equally
well. The conversion quality is also important, and can be switched.
Faster sample rate conversions yield lower quality while slower
conversions (tweak head) will sound better. Your final file should
be a stereo interleaved SDII or AIFF 16 bit/48 kHz file.
Pro Tools Free sessions must be converted on export back to 48
kHz. Choose Tweak Head conversion to have the sample rate conversion
sound the best.
Open Final Cut Pro and import your final
mix into the browser. I usually duplicate the sequence, delete
all audio tracks, and place the new audio mix onto the first
two tracks starting at the beginning of the sequence. If all
the steps have been followed, the audio and video should be in
sync. You can now output your married sequence back to tape using
either the print to tape or edit to tape options.
been using Pro Tools since version 1.0 and Final Cut Pro since
its introduction. He is a freelance video and audio editor, Final
Cut Pro consultant, Avid Certified instructor, and independent
producer. You might see his smiling face on the "5.1 DVD"
available free from Digidesign. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org
Lunar Landing Productions